“Enhancing Teacher Evaluation: A Critical Lever for Improving Teaching and Learning”
ResearchBallantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Educating English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/3/EducatingELLsBuildingTeacherCapacityVol1.pdf
This report articulates a vision for the preparation and professional development of teachers of English language learners (ELLs), including performance indicators and an annotated bibliography.
Blanton, L., Sindelar, P. T., & Correa, V. I. (2006). Models and measures of beginning teacher quality. The Journal of Special Education, 40(2), 115–127.
This document examines various approaches to the assessment of teacher quality, provides examples of each approach from the special education literature, and evaluates each approach according to practical and technical criteria.
Carlson, E., Lee, H., & Schroll, K. (2004). Identifying attributes of high quality special education teachers. Teacher Education and Special Education, 27(4), 350–359.
This document provides an analysis of five teacher quality factors to determine teacher quality measures in special education.
Croft, A., Coggshall, J. G., Dolan, M., & Powers, E. (with Killion, J.). (2010). Job-embedded professional development: What it is, who’s responsible, and how to get it done well. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/JEPD%20Issue%20Brief.pdf
Job-embedded professional development is required in regulations of school improvement grants, state stimulus funds, and other recent federal policies. This Issue Brief describes what job-embedded professional development is and provides recommendations for effective implementation across all levels: states, districts, and schools.
Darling-Hammond, L., Wei, R. C., Andree, A., Richardson, N., & Orphanos, S. (2009). Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on teacher development in the United States and abroad. Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.nsdc.org/news/NSDCstudy2009.pdf
This brief from the National Staff Development Council summarizes the latest research on professional development. It also examines the nature of professional development opportunities currently available to teachers across the United States and in a variety of contexts. The brief provides a tool for education leaders and policymakers to begin to evaluate the needs of the systems in which teachers learn and do their work and to consider how teachers’ learning opportunities can be further supported.
Easton, L. B. (2008). From professional development to professional learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 89(10), 755–759, 776.
This article describes the structures and systems necessary for ensuring the conditions for high-quality professional learning opportunities in schools.
Feng, L., & Sass, T. R. (2009). Special education teacher quality and student achievement. Teacher Quality Research. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.teacherqualityresearch.org/download/Feng%20Sass%20Special%20Ed%20Teacher%20Prep%20003.pdf
Researchers analyze the impact of both preservice and inservice training on the capacity of teachers to foster improved academic achievement among students with disabilities.
Goe, L., Bell, C., & Little, O. (2008). Approaches to evaluating teacher effectiveness: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/EvaluatingTeachEffectiveness.pdf
This research synthesis examines how teacher effectiveness is currently measured. It provides practical guidance for evaluating teacher effectiveness that extends beyond teachers’ contributions to student achievement gains to include how teachers influence classrooms, schools, and their colleagues as well as how they contribute to other important outcomes for students.
Harper, C., & de Jong, E. (2004). Misconceptions about teaching English language learners. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 48(2), 152–162.
This article presents four common misconceptions about teaching ELLs and gives a clear definition of effective instruction for ELLs.
Hazi, H. M., & Rucinski, D. A. (2009). Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 17(5), 1–22.
This article summarizes the statutes and regulations in each of the 50 states with regard to teacher evaluation, including the implications for instructional guidance. The authors find the following common themes among the majority of states: an increase in the number of different forms of evaluation data, state-level oversight of local teacher evaluation systems, and the adoption of strategies for school improvement set forth by the National Governors Association.
Coggshall, J. (2007). Communication framework for measuring teacher quality and effectiveness: Bringing coherence to the conversation. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/NCCTQCommFramework.pdf
This communication framework was developed to promote effective dialogue about the goals of an evaluation system, the measurement of teacher quality and effectiveness, the definition of key terms, and the best practices for communicating this shared vision to the education community. The framework includes communication pointers that can be applied to stakeholder engagement as well.
Gandara, P., Maxwell-Jolly, J., & Rumberger, R. W. (2008). Resource needs for English learners: Getting down to policy recommendations. Santa Barbara, CA: University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute.
This report presents a diagnosis of problems in the education of California’s ELLs, offering policy recommendations to improve ELL teaching and learning.
Goe, L., & Stickler, L. (2008). Teacher quality and student achievement: Making the most of recent research (TQ Research & Policy Brief). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/March2008Brief.pdf
This TQ Research & Policy Brief culls the associations between teacher quality and student achievement as identified in a research synthesis conducted by the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. It identifies several teacher quality variables—including specific teacher qualifications, characteristics, and classroom practices—that can be predictors of student achievement.
Holdheide, L. R., Croft, A., Goe, L., & Reschly, D. J. (2010). Considering the special challenges for evaluating special education teachers and English language learner specialists (TQ Research & Policy Brief, Draft). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
This working draft TQ Research & Policy Brief identifies and discusses emerging trends and conceptions of teacher evaluation for special educators and English language specialists that focus on effectiveness and student achievement. It includes a discussion of the challenges to validity with the use of various measurements and provides guidance and policy recommendations to regional comprehensive centers (RCCs) and state education agencies (SEAs).
Holdheide, L. R., & Reschly, D. J. (2008). Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities (TQ Connection Issue Paper). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/TeacherPreparationtoDeliverInclusiveServices.pdf
This TQ Connection Issue Paper presents a brief review of the legal and policy foundations and best professional practices for inclusive services. It also discusses the key components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher preparation programs at the preservice and inservice levels and offers an inclusive services innovation configuration, which can be used to evaluate general and special education teacher preparation and professional development programs.
Little, O., Goe, L., & Bell, C. (2009). A practical guide to evaluating teacher effectiveness. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/practicalGuide.pdf
This guide offers a definition of teacher effectiveness that states and districts may adapt to meet local requirements. In addition, the guide provides an overview of the many purposes for evaluating teacher effectiveness and indicates which measures are most suitable to use under different circumstances. The guide also includes summaries of various measures of teacher effectiveness, such as value-added models, classroom observations, analysis of classroom artifacts (e.g., lesson plans and student work), and portfolios. The summaries include descriptions of the measures, along with a note about the research base and strengths and cautions to consider for each measure.
Mathers, C., & Oliva, M. (with Laine, S.). (2008). Improving instruction through effective teacher evaluation: Options for states and districts (TQ Research & Policy Brief). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/February2008Brief.pdf
This TQ Research & Policy Brief discusses the measures used in teacher evaluation and focuses on their strengths, limitations, and current use. It underscores aspects of evaluation policies currently aligned with best practices and illuminates areas in which policymakers can improve evaluation rules, regulations, and implementation, thereby improving teacher instruction and student performance.
McGraner, K. L., & Sanz, L. (2009). Preparing teachers of English language learners (TQ Connection Issue Paper). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/issuepaper_preparingELLteachers.pdf
This TQ Connection Issue Paper addresses the challenges of preparing general education and ELL teachers for classroom contexts that include a diverse array of languages and cultures. It also includes an innovation configuration for evaluating teacher preparation programs and professional development in this area.
National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. (2009). The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Opportunities and strategies to advance teacher effectiveness, Part 1
(TQ Research & Policy Update, Special Edition). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/specialEditionMarch2009Update.pd
This special edition of the TQ Research & Policy Update provides a brief overview of the amounts, distribution system, and goals of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding as well as strategies and efforts states should consider when pursuing and allocating these funds.
National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. (2009). The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Opportunities and strategies to advance teacher effectiveness, Part 2
(TQ Research & Policy Update, Special Edition). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/December2009Update.pdf
This follow-up special edition of the TQ Research & Policy Update provides greater detail about ARRA funding streams as they relate to teacher preparation, improving teacher and principal effectiveness, providing effective support to teachers and principals, and the equitable distribution of teachers and leaders. ARRA funding for rural education also is described.
National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. (2009). Using ARRA funds to improve teacher effectiveness and equitable distribution: An interactive mapping tool [Website]. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/arra/main.php
ARRA funds can be used to improve teacher effectiveness and equitable distribution. This online interactive mapping tool is designed to guide conversations between RCC and SEA staff on the strategic use of ARRA funds appropriated to improve teacher effectiveness and equitable distribution.
National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. (2010). Critical decisions guide: Building teacher effectiveness systems [Website]. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/criticalDecisions/
This guide aims to assist leaders in thinking critically as they build a comprehensive evaluation system that fits their unique needs and characteristics. The guide addresses commonly occurring questions for officials from school districts and SEAs including the following:
- What resources can you use to start the conversation with our teacher evaluation team?
- What resources are required for the implementation and sustainability of an evaluation system that measures teacher effectiveness?
- What is the importance of stakeholder engagement? And how do you begin to
- How do you measure teacher effectiveness? How do you measure student growth
for teachers who are in untested grades and subjects?
- How can you ensure effective and ongoing professional development for your teachers? How can you effectively dismiss teachers who are not effective? How can you use data to inform decisions of tenure?
- How can a cost analysis support the implementation of teacher effectiveness systems?
National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. (2010). Guide to teacher evaluation products [Website]. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://resource.tqsource.org/GEP/
Accurately capturing a teacher’s effectiveness is a complex and difficult task. Like building a puzzle, developing a teacher evaluation system requires multiple pieces that must be placed together in a purposeful way to create a holistic evaluation system. The Guide to Teacher Evaluation Products can be used by states and districts to explore various evaluation methods and tools that represent the “puzzle pieces” of an evaluation system. The guide offers the following:
- Detailed descriptions of more than 75 teacher evaluation tools that are currently implemented and tested in districts and states throughout the country
- A list of research and resources for each of the evaluation tools
- Information on the teacher and student populations assessed
- Costs, contact information, and technical support offered
- Strengths and cautions of using each evaluation approach
Price, C. D., Schuermann, P. J., Guthrie, J. W., Witham, P. J., Milanowski, A. T., & Thorn, C. A. (2008). The other 69 percent: Fairly rewarding the performance of teachers of nontested subjects and grades. Washington, DC: Center for Educator Compensation Reform. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://cecr.ed.gov/guides/other69Percent.pdf
This document addresses the means by which states, districts, and schools can fairly and effectively include teachers who teach a grade level or subject area for which standardized achievement tests are not administered or those who teach ELLs or students with disabilities in a performance-based compensation system.
Steiner, L. (2009). Determining processes that build sustainable teacher accountability systems (TQ Research & Policy Brief). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/October2009Brief.pdf
In this TQ Research & Policy Brief, Lucy Steiner from Public Impact details a 2008 study of district personnel and state department of education officials who participated in efforts to improve teacher evaluation systems. The study includes examples of the processes these states and districts used to reform their systems. The participating states and districts included the following: Chicago, Denver, New York City, and the states of Minnesota, Ohio, and South Carolina. Steiner shares her findings regarding the reform efforts’ impetus for change, goals, use of key stakeholders in the planning process, outcomes achieved, and strategies used to address challenges posed. Also included are guiding questions that can be used by school districts or SEAs to facilitate discussion of the teacher evaluation system.
Coggshall, J., Max, J., & Bassett, K. (2008). Using performance-based assessments to identify and support high-quality teachers (Tips & Tools Key Issue). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/keyIssue-June2008.pdf
This Key Issue defines performance-based assessment, outlines the benefits of using it to identify and support teachers, and offers strategies for assessing teachers in this way.
Garcia, P., & Potemski, A. (2009). Recruiting teachers for schools serving English language learners (Tips & Tools Key Issue). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www2.tqsource.org/strategies/recruit/recruitingTeachersforSchoolsServingELLs.pdf
As the number of ELLs continues to grow in a more diverse range of districts, education leaders need to develop creative and comprehensive recruitment strategies to ensure that all ELLs in the district are served by highly qualified teachers. This Key Issue includes strategies and resources on this topic.
Goe, L. (2008). Using value-added models to identify and support highly effective teachers (Tips & Tools Key Issue). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www2.tqsource.org/strategies/het/UsingValueAddedModels.pdf
This Key Issue includes tools, tips, and strategies for using longitudinal statistical information to explore teacher effectiveness.
Goe, L., & Croft, A. (2009). Methods of evaluating teacher effectiveness (Research-to-Practice Brief). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/RestoPractice_EvaluatingTeacherEffectiveness.pdf
This Research-to-Practice Brief is intended to help regional RCCs and state policymakers as they consider evaluation methods for teachers. Specifically, this brief compares value-added measures and classroom observations and discusses the advantages and drawbacks associated with each of these measures.
Hirsch, E. (2008). Identifying professional contexts to support highly effective teachers (Tips & Tools Key Issue). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www2.tqsource.org/strategies/het/ProfessionalContexts.pdf
This Key Issue is a searchable document that allows a user to hone in on specific processes and/or targeted resources that support or provide evidence for strategies related to educator quality. Audiences include RCC, SEA, and LEA personnel as well as principals, researchers, individuals who are new to the field, and policymakers.
Putney, L. L. (2009). Recruiting special education teachers (Tips & Tools Key Issue). Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from http://www.tqsource.org/publications/KeyIssue_RecruitingforSpecialEd.pdf
This Key Issue discusses the critical shortage of special education teachers, especially in urban and rural areas. It provides strategies for recruiting special education teachers through incentives and partnerships with institutions of higher education, attracting more people into the profession through multiple pathways, encouraging paraprofessionals to become certified teachers, retaining current special educators, and promoting cultural diversity in the field.
Waxman, H., Padrón, Y. N., Franco-Fuenmayor, S. E., & Huang, S. L. (2009). Observing classroom instruction for ELLs from student, teacher, and classroom perspectives. TABE Journal, 11(1), 63–95.
This article provides guidance for observing teachers instructing ELLs.